Ethical hacking is the non-violent use of a technology in pursuit of a cause, political or otherwise which is often legally and morally ambiguous.
Hacktivism is the clever use of technology which involves unauthorised access to data or a computer system in pursuit of a cause or political ends.
Online civil disobedience is the use of any technology that connects to the Internet in pursuit of a political ends.
Penetration/Intrusion testing is a type of information systems security testing on behalf of the systemâs owners while security activism goes beyond mere testing of security and includes gathering intelligence on crackers, and launching active attacks to disrupt criminal online enterprises
Counter-attack is when an individual or organisation who is subject to an attack on their data, network or computer takes similar measures to attack back at the âhacker/crackerâ.